Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan
The Union Budget, 2018-19, has proposed to treat school education holistically without segmentation from pre-nursery to Class 12. Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan – an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class 12 has been, therefore, prepared with the broader goal of improving school effectiveness measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes. It subsumes the three Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).
This sector-wide development programme/scheme would also help harmonise the implementation mechanisms and transaction costs at all levels, particularly in using state, district and sub-district level systems and resources, besides envisaging one comprehensive strategic plan for development of school education at the district level. The shift in the focus is from project objectives to improving systems level performance and schooling outcomes which will be the emphasis of the combined Scheme along-with incentivizing States towards improving quality of education
The Goal SDG-4.1 states that “By 2030, ensure that all boys and girls complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes.
Further the SDG 4.5 states that “By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of Education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations” The scheme envisages the „school‟ as a continuum from pre-school, primary, upper primary, secondary to Senior Secondary levels. The vision of the Scheme is to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education from pre-school to senior secondary stage in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for Education.
The major objectives of the Scheme are provision of quality education and enhancing learning outcomes of students; Bridging Social and Gender Gaps in School Education; Ensuring equity and inclusion at all levels of school education; Ensuring minimum standards in schooling provisions; Promoting Vocationalisation of education; Support States in implementation of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009; and Strengthening and up-gradation of SCERTs/State Institutes of Education and DIET as a nodal agencies for teacher training.
The main outcomes of the Scheme are envisaged as Universal Access, Equity and Quality, promoting Vocationalisation of Education and strengthening of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs).
The Scheme will be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme by the Department through a single State Implementation Society (SIS) at the State/UT level. At the National level, there would be a Governing Council headed by Minister of Human Resource Development and a Project Approval Board (PAB) headed by Secretary, Department of School Education and Literacy. The Governing Council will be empowered to modify financial and programmatic norms and approve the detailed guidelines for implementation within the overall Framework of the scheme. Such modifications will include innovations and interventions to improve the quality of school education. The Department will be assisted by a Technical Support Group (TSG) at Educational Consultants of India Limited (EdCIL) to provide technical support in functional areas pertaining to access, equity and quality education by merging the TSGs of the Schemes of SSA, RMSA and TE. States would be expected to bring a single Plan for the entire school education sector.
The fund sharing pattern for the scheme between Centre and States is at present in the ratio of 90:10 for the 8 North-Eastern States viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura and 3 Himalayan States viz. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and 60:40 for all other States and Union Territories with Legislature. It is 100% centrally sponsored for Union Territories without Legislature. This is in accordance with the recommendations of the Sub-Group of Chief Ministers on Rationalization of Centrally Sponsored Schemes received in October, 2015.
The major interventions, across all levels of school education, proposed under the scheme are: (i) Universal Access including Infrastructure Development and Retention; (ii) Gender and Equity; (iii) Inclusive Education; (iv) Quality; (v) Financial support for Teacher Salary; (vi) Digital initiatives; (vii) RTE Entitlements including uniforms, textbooks etc.;(viii) Pre-school Education; (ix) Vocational Education; (x) Sports and Physical Education; (xi) Strengthening of Teacher Education and Training; (xii) Monitoring; (xiii) Programme Management; and (xiii) National Component. It is proposed that preference in the interventions would be given to Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs), LWEs affected districts, Special Focus Districts (SFDs), Border areas and the 115 Aspirational districts.
The main emphasis of the SSA is on improving quality of school education by focussing on the two T‟s – Teacher and Technology. The strategy for all interventions under the Scheme would be to enhance the Learning Outcomes at all levels of schooling. The scheme proposes to give flexibility to the States and UTs to plan and prioritize their interventions within the scheme norms and the overall resource envelope available to them. Funds are proposed to be allocated based on an objective criteria based on enrolment of students, committed liabilities, learning outcomes and various performance indicators.
The Scheme will help improve the transition rates across the various levels of school education and aid in promoting universal access to children to complete school education. The integration of Teacher Education would facilitate effective convergence and linkages between different support structures in school education through interventions such as a unified training calendar, innovations in pedagogy, mentoring and monitoring, etc. This single Scheme will enable the SCERT to become the nodal agency for conduct and monitoring of all in-service training programmes to make it need-focused and dynamic. It would also enable reaping the benefits of technology and widening the access of good quality education across all States and UTs and across all sections of the Society.
Holistic approach to education
- Single Scheme for the School Education Sector from Classes I to XII- extension of interventions to senior secondary stage.
- Treat school education holistically as a continuum from Pre-school to Class 12
- Supporting States to initiate pre-primary education
- Inclusion of senior secondary levels and pre-school levels in support for School education for the first time
- Single and unified administrative structure leading to harmonized implementation
- Flexibility to States to prioritise their interventions under the Scheme
- An integrated administration looking at „school‟ as a continuum
Enhanced Funding for Education
- The budget has been enhanced.
- Learning outcomes and steps taken for quality improvement will be the basis for allocation of grants under the Scheme.
Focus on Quality of Education
- Emphasis on improvement of Learning Outcomes
- Enhanced Capacity Building of Teachers
- Focus on strengthening Teacher Education Institutions like SCERTs and DIETs to improve the quality of prospective teachers in the system
- SCERT to be the nodal institution for in-service and pre-service teacher training – will make training dynamic and need-based.
- Key focus on quality education emphasizing capacity building of teachers in online and offline mode as well as strengthening of Teacher Education Institutions SCERT/DIET/BRC/CRC/CTEs/IASEs. Annual Grant per school for strengthening of Libraries
- Almost 1 million schools to be given library grant .
- Enhanced focus on improving quality of education by focus on the two T‟s – Teachers and Technology
- Outcome oriented allocation of resources
Focus on Digital Education
- Support „Operation Digital Board‟ in all secondary schools over a period of 5 years, which will revolutionize education- easy to understand, technology based learning classrooms will become flipped classrooms.
- Enhanced use of digital technology in education through smart classrooms, digital boards and DTH channels
- Digital initiatives like Shala Kosh, Shagun, Shaala Saarthi to be strengthened
- Strengthening of ICT infrastructure in schools from upper primary to higher secondary level.
- “DIKSHA”, digital portal for teachers to be used extensively for upgrading skills of teachers
- Enhanced Use of Technology to improve access and provision of quality education – „Sabko Shiksha Achhi Shiksha‟
Strengthening of Schools
- Emphasis on consolidation of schools for improvement of quality
- Enhanced Transport facility to children across all classes from I to VIII for universal access to school
- Increased allocation for infrastructure strengthening in schools
- Composite school grant increased and to be allocated on the basis of school enrolment.
- Specific provision for Swachhta activities – support „Swachh Vidyalaya‟
- Improve the Quality of Infrastructure in Government Schools
Focus on Girl Education
- Empowerment of girls
- Upgradation of KGBVs from Class 6-8 to Class 6-12 .
- Self-defence training for girls from upper primary to higher secondary stage
- Stipend for CWSN girls to be provided from Classes I to XII. – earlier only IX to XII.
- Enhanced Commitment to „Beti Bachao Beti Padhao‟
Focus on Inclusion
- Allocation for uniforms under RTE Act enhanced per child per annum.
- Allocation for textbooks under the RTE Act, enhanced per child per annum. Energized textbooks to be introduced.
- Allocation for Children with Special Needs (CwSN) increased from Rs. 3000 to Rs. 3500 per child per annum. Stipend of Rs. 200 per month for Girls with Special Needs from Classes 1 to 12.
- Commitment to „Sabko Shiksha Achhi Shiksha‟
Focus on Skill Development
- Exposure to Vocational Skills at Upper Primary Level would be extended.
- Strengthening of vocational education at secondary level as an integral part of curriculum
- Vocational education which was limited to Class 9-12, to be started from class 6 as integrated with the curriculum and to be made more practical and industry oriented.
- Reinforce emphasis on „Kaushal Vikas‟
Focus on Sports and Physical Education
- Sports equipment will be provided to all schools under this component.
- Sports Education to be an integral part of curriculum
- Every school will receive sports equipments under the scheme to inculcate and emphasize relevance of sports in the school curriculum
- Support „Khelo India‟
Focus on Regional Balance
- Promote Balanced Educational Development
- Preference to Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs), LWEs, Special Focus Districts (SFDs), Border areas and the 115 aspirational districts identified by Niti Aayog
- „Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas‟ and Sabko Shiksha Achhi Shiksha